Teacher Tools Related to Reading Acquisition 

  • Phonemic Awareness
    Phonemic awareness is the ability to notice, think about, and work with the individual sounds in spoken language. Instruction in phonemic awareness is most beneficial for the young child in preschool, kindergarten and first grade and is important because it is one of the main predictors of reading success. Five activities to support this instruction are included in the module.
  • Phonics
    Phonics is the understanding that there is a predictable relationship between phonemes, the sound of spoken language, and graphemes, the letters and spelling that represent those sounds in written language. Phonics instruction is important because a student needs to be able to identify the letters or letter combinations in a written word, match them to their sounds, and use those sounds to make sense of the word. Approaches to phonics instruction can vary widely, but research suggests that phonics learning should be one part of a much larger reading program. Four activities to support this instruction are included in the module.
  • Fluency
    Fluency is the ability to read smoothly, accurately, quickly, and expressively. When a reader is able to read faster, he is usually able to better comprehend what he is reading. Five activities to support this instruction are included in the module.
  • Vocabulary
    Vocabulary refers to the words that one understands and uses to communicate. Vocabulary directly impacts reading comprehension, because in order to understand what is being read, the reader must understand what most of the words mean. Most vocabulary is learned incidentally, but some will need to be taught explicitly. Four activities to support this instruction are included in the module.
  • Comprehension
    Reading comprehension is the ability to understand text. A good reader has a purpose for reading and is an active participant in the thinking process that makes understanding text possible. Students can be taught to use comprehension strategies effectively and automatically. Three activities to support this instruction are included in the module.

Developed by: 
Sharon E. Green, Ph.D,
Emporia State University 


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